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04 December 2021
  » arxiv » 0911.1168

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Covariant Perturbation Theory (IV). Third Order in the Curvature
A. O. Barvinsky ; Yu. V. Gusev ; V. V. Zhytnikov ; G. A. Vilkovisky ;
Date 6 Nov 2009
AbstractThe trace of the heat kernel and the one-loop effective action for the generic differential operator are calculated to third order in the background curvatures: the Riemann curvature, the commutator curvature and the potential. In the case of effective action, this is equivalent to a calculation (in the covariant form) of the one-loop vertices in all models of gravitating fields. The basis of nonlocal invariants of third order in the curvature is built, and constraints arising between these invariants in low-dimensional manifolds are obtained. All third-order form factors in the heat kernel and effective action are calculated, and several integral representations for them are obtained. In the case of effective action, this includes a specially generalized spectral representation used in applications to the expectation-value equations. The results for the heat kernel are checked by deriving all the known coefficients of the Schwinger-DeWitt expansion including $a_3$ and the cubic terms of $a_4$. The results for the effective action are checked by deriving the trace anomaly in two and four dimensions. In four dimensions, this derivation is carried out by several different techniques elucidating the mechanism by which the local anomaly emerges from the nonlocal action. In two dimensions, it is shown by a direct calculation that the series for the effective action terminates at second order in the curvature. The asymptotic behaviours of the form factors are calculated including the late-time behaviour in the heat kernel and the small-$Box$ behaviour in the effective action. In quantum gravity, the latter behaviour contains the effects of vacuum radiation including the Hawking effect.
Source arXiv, 0911.1168
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