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23 October 2019
 
  » arxiv » cond-mat/0404138

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Topological Defects in Ferromagnetic, Antiferromagnetic and Cyclic Spinor Condensates -- A Homotopy Theory
Yunbo Zhang ; Harri Mäkelä ; Kalle-Antti Suominen ;
Date 6 Apr 2004
Subject Soft Condensed Matter | cond-mat.soft
AbstractWe apply the homotopy group theory in classifying the topological defects in atomic spin-1 and spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates. The nature of the defects depends crucially on the spin-spin interaction between the atoms. We find the topologically stable defects both for spin-1 ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic states, and for spin-2 ferromagnetic and cyclic states. With this rigorous approach we clarify the previously controversial identification of symmetry groups and order parameter spaces for the spin-1 anti-ferromagnetic state, and show that the spin-2 cyclic case provides a rare example of a physical system with non-Abelian line defects, like those observed in biaxial nematics. We also show the possibility to produce vortices with fractional winding numbers of 1/2, 1/3 and their multiples in spinor condensates.
Source arXiv, cond-mat/0404138
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